“Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one.”
Albert Einstein

Electric field induced phase
transformation in BaTiO3
credit: R. Ignatans
Left: Biasing and heating chip
Top-Right: Electrochemical chip
Bottom-Right: Cross-section of liquid/gas cell enclosure
credit: R. Girod
Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3 structural oscillations
enclosed in air
credit: T.-H. Shen








Our mission at INE is to understand on a fundamental level the nanoscale properties of functional oxides and 2D materials using in situ transmission electron microscopy techniques. We focus on nucleation and growth, phase transformations, surface reconstructions, and degradation mechanisms of nanostructures and we probe how the nanomaterials properties are affected by changes in temperature, electric field, and gaseous and/or liquid environment. We develop the techniques in order to dynamically observe the changes as they happen during real-time operation of their bulk counterparts. Such measurements have important implications on the design and development of electrochemical storage systems and memory devices.



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